Tuesday, 7 July 2020

How many High Courts in India 2020

How many High Courts in India 2020



High Courts in India: Overview

ü  The High Court of a State is the highest court of the State and all other courts of the State work under it.

ü  Normally there is one High Court in every State but there can be only one High Court for two or more States as well (Article 231), according to the constitution.

ü  There are 25 High Courts in India.

ü  The Calcutta High Court, established in 1862, is the oldest High Court in India. The Bombay and Madras High Courts were also established in the same year.

ü  The newest High Courts are the Telangana Court and Andhra Pradesh High Court, both established in the year 2019.

ü  In every High Court, there is a Chief Justice and many other judges whose number is defined by the President of India.

ü  The Bombay, Madras and Calcutta High Courts are the three Chartered High Courts in India

ü  The Madras Law Journal, published from the Madras High Court, was the first journal in India dedicated to reporting judgements of a Court (1891).

Total High Courts in India

The total number of high courts in India is 25. The list High Courts for all states and union territories with established year is given below:

List of High Courts in India

Name

Year

Territorial 
Jurisdiction

Seat

Kolkata

1862

West Bengal, Andman & Nicobar Islands

Kolkata ( Bench of port Blair)

Bombay

1862

Maharastra, Dadar, & Nagar Haveli. Goa, Daman  Diu

Mumbai (Bench at Panaji, Aurangabad and Nagpur)

Chennai

1862

Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry

Chennai (Bench at Madurai)

Allahabad

1866

Utter Pradesh

Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)

Karnataka

1884

Karnataka

Bengaluru (Bench at Dharwad and Gulbarga)

Patna

1916

Bihar

Patna

Jammu & Kashmir

1928

Jammu & Kashmir

Sri Nagar & Jammu

Punjab & Haryana

1947

Punjab, Haryana , Chandigarh

Chandigarh

Guwahati

1948

Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh

Guwahati (Bench at Kohima, Aizawl and Itanagar

Orissa

1948

Orissa

Cuttack


 

 

 

Rajasthan

1949

Rajasthan

Jodhpur ( Bench – Jaipur)

Madhya Pradesh

1956

Madhya Pradesh

Jabalpur (Bench –Indore , Gwalior)

Kerala

1958

Kerala & Lakshadweep

Ernakulam

Gujarat

1960

Gujarat

Ahmedabad

Delhi

1966

Delhi

Delhi

Himachal Pradesh

1966

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Sikkim

1975

Sikkim

Gangtok

Chhattisgarh

2000

Chhattisgarh

Bilaspur

Uttarakhand

2000

Uttarakhand

Nainital

Jharkhand

2000

Jharkhand

Ranchi

Tripura

2013

Tripura

Agartala

Manipur

2013

Manipur

Imphal

Meghalaya

2013

Meghalaya

Shillong

Andhra Pradesh

2019

Andhra Pradesh

Amravati

Telangana

2019

Telangana

Hyderabad

Appointment of the Judges

  1. üThe Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President with the consultation of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the Governor of the State.

ü  The other judges are appointed by the will of President, Governor and the Chief Justice of High Court.

Qualifications for the Judges

ü  He should be a citizen of India.

ü  He should have been an advocate in one or more High Courts in India or a judge for at least 10 years in subordinate courts in India.

Tenure:

ü  Originally the age of the retirement of the judges of the High Courts was fixed at 60 but it was raised to 62 in 1963 according to the 15th amendment of the Constitution.

Removal of the Judges

ü  A judge may leave his office by resigning. He will send his letter of resignation to the President. 

ü  His office would be considered to have been vacated if he is appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court or is transferred to some other High Court. 

ü  A judge of a High Court may also be removed like a judge of the Supreme Court. A judge of High Court may be removed by the President if the Parliament passes a motion against him by an absolute majority and 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting, both the Houses sitting separately.

Salary of High Court Judge

ü  The pay of the Chief Justice of a High Court is rupees 280,000/- per month and that of the other judges is rupees 250,000/- per month.

Powers and Functions of High Court

High Court has the following jurisdiction and powers:

1) Power to issue certain writs:-Every High Court has the power to issue writs of habeus corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto and certiorari for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights or for other purpose.

2) Power of Superintendence: Every High Court has superintendence over all Courts and Tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.

3) Power to transfer case: If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution, the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, it shall withdraw the case and may-

ü  either dispose of the case itself; or

ü  determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgement on such question, and the said court shall on receipt there of proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgement.

4) Consultation in the appointment and posting etc. of District Judges: The High Court is consulted by the Governor in the appointment, posting and promotion of District Judges. It is also consulted in the appointment of other members of the State Judicial Service.

5) Control over subordinate courts: The control over district court and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of and the grant of leave to persons belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district judge is vested in the High Court.

6) Other original and appellate powers: Hight Court has original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters as conferred by the Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure and the Letters of Patent.


Important Questions related to High Courts in India.

  • There are 25 High Courts in India now.
  •  Which is the newly constituted High Court in India (Telangana and Andhra Pradesh High Courts were established in 2019)
  • Which state of India does not have its own High Court (Goa, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland does not have its own high court)
  • Allahabad High Court is one biggest High Court in India.
  •  Leila Seth (20 October 1930 – 5 May 2017) was the first woman judge on the Delhi High Court and she became the first woman to become Chief Justice of a state High Court on 5 August 1991.

 

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